Quick Guide on How to Prevent Spay Incontinence

Quick Guide on How to Prevent Spay Incontinence

If you are a male or female dog owner, you know how important it is to have your pet properly spayed or neutered. For decades, we have heard about the moral importance of such an action, with everyone from veterinarians to celebrity pet lovers telling us how important it is that we prevent unwanted pets from becoming strays by pre-emptively spaying and neutering our pets. That’s good advice and deserves to be followed.

That being said, if you’ve noticed your dog’s been suffering from a bit of a urinary problem since her spaying, you aren’t imagining things.

The spaying process obviously involves performing a medical procedure near your pet’s genitalia and urinary tract. While it is unintentional, this can sometimes lead to a stretching of the urinary area or other problems. These, in turn, can lead to urinary incontinence.

So, how can you prevent that, and what can you do to address spay incontinence should it occur? One option is to get some Dog Incontinence Pants, this is handy to have around the house to prevent spillages and accidents. Herbal remedies such as this Urinary Aid for Dogs are also a great option to try out.

Which dogs are Most Vulnerable to Spay Incontinence?

Female dogs, in particular, can be subject to spay incontinence. This is especially true for certain breeds, such as Cocker Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Old English Sheepdogs.

That said, urinary incontinence is a condition to which all dog breeds are susceptible. Some of the warning signs of urinary incontinence can include:

  • Urinating more frequently than usual
  • Not having full control of their bladder, including “dribbling” and “accidents”
  • Changes in your dog’s urinary PH level
  • Changes in their behaviour immediately before and after they urinate

Pre-emptive Measures

While it may be tempting at first to think that the best way to prevent urinary incontinence is to avoid having your pet spayed altogether, you would be wrong. It is vitally important, for the reasons laid out by those aforementioned veterinarians and animal welfare activists, that you have your pet properly spayed if you do not plan on having and taking responsibility for their litters.

The best pre-emptive action you can take is to talk to your veterinarian about the matter, and hear what they have to say. They’ll be able to give you a fuller idea as to whether or not that’s a concern with your pet and, if so, how it can be treated.

Spay Incontinence Treatments

With that in mind, let’s turn our mind to what can be done to address spay incontinence.

If your dog does start to experience this issue after her spaying, you’ll want to ask your veterinarian what type of treatment is best for her.

There are several potential responses to this. Proin and similar medications can do a great deal to help mitigate the effects of urinary incontinence. Female dogs, in particular, can respond well to oestrogen treatments, though they do have the side effect of making them more “attractive” to other dogs. In very rare cases, surgery can sometimes be an option.

However, things should not get that far, and urinary incontinence can typically be treated with one of several different types of pills or other treatments, preventing this from becoming a long-term problem.

Why does my female dog wet the bed in her sleep?

Why does my dog wet the bed in her sleep?

If you have ever noticed your dog wet the bed in her sleep it is extremely important to get him to a vet as soon as possible in order to determine the underlying issue.

Female dogs can experience a syndrome called hormone-responsive urinary incontinence.

Hormone-responsive urinary incontinence typically manifests as urine dribbling, which can mean a dog peeing on the bed.

When thinking of why your female dog wets the bed in her sleep? A common misconception among dog owners is that when their dog wets the bed while sleeping, it’s usually a dog that has not been completely house-broken or trained.

In reality, when you see a dog wet the bed, it is almost always a physical problem or medical disorder rather than a potty training problem.

While a weak bladder by itself is not deadly, when paired with something like diabetes or kidney disease, it can result in death if left unaddressed. So for the avoidance of doubt, if your dog starts showing signs of urinary incontinence, skip searching for new dog training courses and book a quick visit to your vet to check if there are any underlying medical issues to be worried about.

Such a medical issue can include but are not restricted to:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Neuter or spay
  • Spinal cord disease 
  • Diabetes 
  • Kidney disease

The one exception is dogs that are closed into a crate to sleep who wake up needing to urinate and cannot get away from the resulting puddle.

Female dog leaking urine

The commonest condition that causes incontinence in dogs is called ‘spay incontinence’.

It is aptly named because it makes female dogs leak urine after spaying. The older female dogs and the length of time since she was spayed, determine how much at risk she is of having spay incontinence.

It may start with you noticing a little wet spot. Then you notice a trickle or that your dog leaves an odourless wet spot. Shortly afterwards, you notice your dog is can’t hold urine overnight and leaves a wet bed after a nap. Unless you have one of the better waterproof beds on the market.

Waterproof Dog Beds

Waterproof dog beds that can be spot treated as the Outer covering is made of durable Oxford fabric with added coating to make the bed waterproof. Resistant to abrasion and chemical agents,

Leaking urine during rest or sleep is not your dog’s fault. There is value in spaying your female dog, but giving up their ovaries means the sphincter muscle in the bladder can be left just weak enough to relax and release urine.

Removing the ovaries during Spay surgery also result in decreased oestrogen levels. Leading to your female dog dribbling urine when relaxed. It may also happen any time they drift off. The result is a telltale wet spot on their bed. 

Some female dogs also have a congenital condition where the bladder is tipped the opposite way to normal. As this condition leaves female dogs at a much higher risk of urinary tract infections, a vet is usually best placed to diagnose and treat your dog.

Hormone-responsive urinary incontinence in female dogs

Once you realise that your female dogs have issues controlling her bladder while asleep, it is important you begin monitoring any other unusual urinary habits.

Fortunately, hormone-responsive urinary incontinence in female dogs can be treated with an effective and relatively safe medication called Phenylpropanolamine (PPA).

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is the initial treatment of choice to resolve urinary incontinence in female dogs.

Some dogs require daily treatment with medicine. Others need only intermittent treatment. You will have to consult your veterinarian and experiment with the medication to identify the best course of action.

Virtually all affected dogs have some improvement incontinence after treatment with Phenylpropanolamine (PPA). Often, the largest dose is prescribed for the night to control incontinence while the dog is sleeping.

Speaking to your veterinary doctor should be your first port of call, and then if she gets a clean bill of health, then consider alternative options.

Other causes of sudden urinary incontinence

There are a number of other reasons for urine leakage that your vet will consider before reaching the diagnosis of involuntary urinary incontinence including: 

  • Overflow incontinence – This is where the bladder is so full that the normal stop valve mechanisms cannot prevent leakage.
  • Urge incontinence – Here your vet will consider if urinary tract infection/irritation, inflammation of the bladder, prostate or vagina, and masses (growths) are stimulating the increased frequency of urination. In some instances, this can be confused with involuntary urinary incontinence.
  • Increased water intake (polydipsia) will usually be related to increased urination and this can appear to be similar to incontinence. Conditions that result in increased thirst will need to be ruled out during the investigation of incontinence.

Treating Old Dog Incontinence

old dog Urinary Tract

So you have an old dog. How you treat your old dog’s incontinence problems would depend on what is causing the issue in the first place.

Do you do out and get the best large pee pad available? Or do you consider your options and investigate some more?

Sometimes urinary incontinence is the whole problem, at other times it’s just a symptom of another underlying health issue.

There are lots of effective remedies for your old dog leaky plumbing issues, from medications and supplements to surgery.

The key to success is to make sure that you’re trying to ‘cure’ the right problem!

Treating Hormone-Induced Incontinence

Estrogen-deficiency – this type of senior dog incontinence can affect elderly ‘intact’ females, but it’s much more common in those who have been spayed.

Sometimes this is referred to as spay-related incontinence.

There are sometimes some short-term bladder issues after the spay surgery itself. Despite this, the impact of the dropping hormone levels doesn’t show up until your dog is somewhere between three and five years old.

The low estrogen levels cause the sphincter muscles (which keep the ‘neck’ of the bladder closed.

Sort of like an elastic band around the neck of an inflated balloon) to become weak and any pressure in the bladder is enough to cause urine to leak out, or even flood out.

Many times, this type of old dog incontinence is fairly straightforward to treat and there are two options…. drug/medication treatment or surgery.

Medications & Hormone Supplementation

The medications are usually the first choice unless there’s another underlying problem, or it’s extremely severe.

‘Male problems’

Although hormone-related incontinence is usually seen in female dogs, males can suffer too.

When that happens, testosterone supplementation may help.

Estrogen supplements (either natural or synthetic) can be used. These stimulate the nerves in the sphincter, encouraging them to tighten up, which reduces or eliminates the ‘leak’.

The drug (actually a decongestant) called Phenylpropanolamine (aka PPA) has the same effect, it’s found in both Propalin and Proin, which are prescription medications that your veterinarian can prescribe.

Both drug therapy and estrogen supplementation are very effective in many dogs. Estrogen supplementation has about a 50% – 60% success rate, and PPA’s figure is around 80% – 90%.

Sometimes your vet will use a combination of the two options if Fifi isn’t responding well enough to just one. This is often very effective.

old dog Urinary Tract

Female Dog Incontinence…… Possible serious side effects….

In 2011 a new hormone replacement drug was launched onto the market and is used to treat incontinence in female dogs. It contains a natural estrogen hormone called Estriadol.

Although it can have generally mild side-effects (including appetite loss, swelling of the vulva and increased thirst), there are some reports of owners noticing significant behavioural changes in their dogs when on this medication.

Excessive friendliness and overly affectionate behaviour (to the point of being highly irritating to other dogs), or increased (and often uncharacteristic) aggression are both noted.

If your senior dog is prescribed a drug to use and you notice behaviour changes, discuss them with your veterinarian as a change of medication might be needed.

All options are long-term propositions and your dog will most likely need to continue to take the medications for the rest of her life.

Luckily side-effects are rare and usually minor, and once your vet gets the problem under control he will reduce the dose he prescribes until he finds the lowest effective dosage.

Surgical Options For Spay Incontinence

There are a few surgical options for treating this type of incontinence.

They include implanting a ‘urethral occluder’ – which is a kind of ‘cuff’ that is fitted around the urethra (the tube which carries urine from the bladder). It can be adjusted to keep the opening tighter.

Another choice that is sometimes used is to inject collagen around the sphincter muscles to ‘bulk them up’ and improve function.

Finally, there are surgeries which can ‘tack’ the bladder into a more functional position and improve the placement of the neck.

Colposuspension is the most common procedure.

These surgeries are varied, and a little complicated, and sometimes it takes a combination of several different treatments to get the best results.

Also, these aren’t necessarily going to fix the problem permanently.

So your best bet is to discuss surgical options fully with your vet if the other options haven’t been successful.

* Some of these operations can be performed on both male and female dogs, some not.

Spinal & Neurological Incontinence

For incontinence in older dogs that are being caused by an underlying health problem, the only thing to do is to fix that!

So, if your dog has bladder issues caused by spinal, vertebrae or neurological issues, those are what you need to address.

Sometimes medications can reduce the inflammation and swelling which is compressing the nerves, other times surgery is needed.

If your old dog is showing any signs of weakness or lameness in his rear end and has leaky plumbing, then your vet will want to investigate and test for this type of issue.

Treating Dog Urinary Tract Infections

Your veterinarian will diagnose a UTI by taking, and testing, a urine sample from your dog.

Antibiotics will usually kill off the bacteria pretty quickly and have your dog feeling better fast – that’s always good news!

If the infection is what caused the incontinence, then once it’s cleared up, the problem hopefully won’t reoccur.

BUT if the infection was the result of another health issue then your vet will want to run more tests so that he/she can treat both problems properly.

Never leave a UTI untreated because bacteria can travel from the bladder to the kidneys very easily and cause a lot more trouble there.

Treating Underlying Illnesses & Diseases

Your old dog is at risk for a lot of different health issues and many of these can cause incontinence which ranges from mild to severe.

The key to getting this under control is to figure out exactly what it is that’s causing the problem, so you’ll need to be looking at any other symptoms your dog is showing.

These could include:

  • Changes in appetite
  • Weigh changes (up or down)
  • Excessive thirst
  • Tummy upsets (such as diarrhoea or vomiting)
  • Signs of pain or stress (panting, pacing, whining etc.)
  • Disorientation, weakness or collapse, muscle spasms
  • Behavioural changes or confusion (a possible sign of Canine Dysfunction Syndrome)

Most veterinarians will use these above symptoms, as well as any other tests needed to find out what’s behind your old dog incontinence issues.

THEN, the right treatment program can get put in place and hopefully, that will cure both the incontinence and the underlying health issue.

Urinary: Female Dog Incontinence

Incontinence

Incontinence in female dogs is a phrase used to refer to involuntary urination, night or day. The issue can have many causes which influence the body’s ability to shut off the flow of urine, or when the bladder overflows. These may include urethra muscle control issues, and issues common to all dogs including infection and stone formation.

It is a complex process where the brain transmits the sensation that the bladder is full with the knowledge to give your dog the sensation that it need to urinate by coordinating the muscles that controls urination in the brain (PMC center).

Female Dog Incontinence occurs when the urinary systems isn’t regulating the flow of urine properly.

In younger female dogs (and some males) a condition called ectopic ureters is the most common cause. This is a condition where there is a problem where the tube that leads from the kidney – the ureters – doesn’t attach correctly to the bladder.

Female dog incontinence may be inherited or triggered by spaying. After spaying the illness usually occurs 3 years after being neutered, but can occur up to ten decades.

Dog's Urinary Tract incintinence

Dog Breeds Affected by Urinary Incontinence:

While this could be a problem in all breeds, it is most often seen in:

  • English Bulldog
  • Newfoundland
  • Siberian Husky
  • Retrievers (Labrador and Golden)

Many times, the problem is diagnosed after other causes of incontinence like disease, cystitis (bladder inflammation) and canine cognitive dysfunction are ruled out.

Other causes are less common. These include thickening of the bladder wall, structural problem where the ureters ( lead from the kidneys to the bladder), enters the bladder (ectopic ureters), neoplasia (tumour or unusual cell growth) and some form of paralysis in the urinary system.

Medical direction is widely used and is suitable for nearly all affected animals. Surgical remedies are also described: operation is used for patients that are refractory to medical management or for young animals where the health effects or cost of long-term medication is of concern to the owners.

Treatment options include the use of prescription drugs and surgery. There’s also a homeopathic natural approach which may provide temporary relief as stated below.

Medications

Prescription medications include oestrogen treatment and a class of drugs called sympathomimetic agents (Phenylpropanololamine). Medications can work by helping the muscle that closes off urine in the urethra increase the amount of pressure it uses when shutting off the flow of urine. Most dogs won’t experience side effects, and if they do, they include restlessness, anxiety, aggressive behaviour and diarrhoea.

Surgery

Surgery is used if a dog does not respond well to medications or if you prefer this option. The objective of surgery is to move the bladder into a better position. There are numerous surgical techniques available which can be discussed with your vet (colposuspension, urethropexy, urethral sling suspension, and injection of collagen). There’s a high rate of success with this approach (80% increase, 50% treated).

There are natural homeopathic remedies know to ease incontinence and strengthen the bladder. 1 product that’s a fantastic source of further research is PetAlive Better-Bladder Control. It contains components such as:

Bacterial infection is the most common type of disease and is usually found in female puppies as they have a brief urethra (tube that carries urine from bladder to outside of body). If not treated the bacteria can colonise up the urethra, to the bladder, and then go from the bladder to urethra into the kidneys (pyelonephritis).

Urine is your body’s natural means of keeping a disease from forming and thus preventing female dog rash. Urea, the principal ingredient in pee, kills germs in the bladder and the whole tract. When your dog does not drink enough or if there is an obstruction, the stream of urine is not able to perform its job. Even walking your dog once every day will encourage an extra chance for your dog to urinate.

To deal with infection your vet will prescribe antibiotics. As a homeopathic addition to antibiotics or as a preventative you may try UTI-Free Formula for pet urinary tract infections. Certain organic ingredients are related to urinary support. Cranberry juice tablets may also be of help for incontinence in female dogs because it functions to keep bacteria from clinging to the walls of the bladder.

Stones tend to form when there’s a buildup of minerals which attach together in the urine.

As stones become bigger, they can start to block the flow of urine. Other symptoms may include blood on your dog’s urine and pain when urinating. In severe cases like if the ureter is obstructed (tube that leads from the kidney to bladder), your dog may vomit and act lethargic.

Diagnosis is accomplished by assessing the urine, x-rays and by feeling your dog during the trip to the vet. Ultrasound could also be beneficial. In puppies, struvite formation is related to bacterial infection.

Urate stones can be dissolved with the drug allopurinol. Your vet may also indicate a change to a low protein Diet that could help prevent these kinds of stones from forming. The other kind of stone, struvite is connected with dogs which also have a fungal infection. These kinds of stones can be dissolved by changing to a special diet such as Hill’s Prescription Diet s/d. This diet will have to be the only thing that your dog eats for a period of 3 to 6 weeks.

Other Reasons For Female Dog Incontinence

In elderly dog’s a condition known as canine cognitive dysfunction may be the cause for female dog rash. It’s a neurological condition where you dog can’t effectively control the bladder.

In young dogs, a birth defect exists that leads to rash called ectopic ureters. The ureters in puppies are what moves urine from the kidneys to the bladder. One or both may by-pass the bladder and link to some other place like the vagina or urethra. If that is true a young puppy may undergo urinary problems like dripping urine. There are several breeds where there is an above average incidence of the problem including:

Female dog incontinence due to dog ectopic ureters is diagnosed with a bladder dye research. The problem is treated with surgery to move the ureters to their proper location.

Pets that have accidents

urinary tract infection in dogs

When pets have accidents, the first assumption is that it is due to a behavioural issue. That may or may not be the case.

It’s important that customers are taught early on that any time there’s a change in a pet’s behaviour, contact the vet. Most pet owners create assumptions: “It is an old dog, there is nothing I could do,” or “She’s mad because we just returned from holiday.” Well, perhaps the puppy is older — but that does not mean there is nothing the pet owner can do. In terms of the pet that inappropriately urinates after the family returns home, there’s a long list of health conditions, from diabetes to bladder control problems which might be causing or contributing the issue.

urinary tract infection in pets

What appears to resonate with pet owners is if veterinarians or technicians clarify that if there is a change in behaviour for your personal pet –why now? Something should have precipitated that change. Sure, there might be a behavioral explanation, but behavior frequently changes over time, not automatically overnight. Pet owners may not have realized that you’re interested. Many pet owners simply don’t understand that their vet wishes to learn about any changes in behaviour.

So, with each trip, repeat the mantra: Changes in behaviour mean a trip to the veterinarian.

Many pet owners are ashamed that their pet is having accidents, and may not willingly report it. Because inappropriate elimination is a frequent reason for relinquishment (common in dogs and cats), understanding that the pet is having accidents may save a life, and obviously a pet owner. You can probably help, but you can not offer assistance to a condition you’re unaware of – if the problem is behavioural.

Routinely checking for information on home training in dogs and litter box habits in cats, rather than just kittens and older pets — but instead all pets.

Ultimately, you will need to figure out whether the pet is incontinent or having accidents.

The explanation may be an issue of housetraining. Many owners assume that the dog is housetrained when maybe the dog truly isn’t, at least not reliably.

Sometimes owners have unrealistic expectations. “But my neighbour’s 10-pound pet can hold it for 10 hours.” Maybe that dog can, or maybe the neighbour is exaggerating. It doesn’t matter.

One big question: where the dog is eliminating? If the dog is eliminating by lifting a leg and/or hitting vertical surfaces, the dog might be marking (of course, reproductive status does matter, though even neutered dogs might).

Looming even larger is the question of if the puppy is removing. If the dog wees immediately when folks come home, wagging a tail, even as the dog rolls over (especially when guys come home), the issue may be submissive urination. This behaviour is most common in dogs, but can occur in dogs of any age, especially when newly adopted.

If the dog urinates when noone else is indoors, the dog may suffer from separation anxiety. Usually, there’ll be additional signs of separation anxiety, however, like the dog being over-solicitous to household members; behaving anxious as individuals demonstrate cues that they’re going to leave the home; maybe salivating so much from the lack of individuals there are puddles while folks arrive home; objects could be chewed on; the puppy might scratch in the door; neighbours might report whining, scratching or scratching; and the puppy might also eliminate bowel control.

Older pets

If the dog is older, canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome should be considered. As in separation anxiety, there’s typically at least another sign beside having accidents. There is a manual, frequently labelled with the acronym DISHA:

Disorientation: Changes in spatial consciousness, lack of ability to navigate around familiar obstacles (like trying to walk through the incorrect side of a doorway, or becoming ‘stuck’ in smallish rooms), wandering or pacing behaviour.
House soiling: Not only having accidents but does not appear to understand that the “oops.” If the dog appears to instantly realise, it’s somewhat more likely to be due to a medical condition.
Activity level changes: Beyond what is normal for older dogs, important diminished exploration and reaction to things, people, sounds around the home; decreased grooming, diminished appetite; increased stress, such as restlessness, agitation, or an onset of separation distress.

It is your job to “Sherlock Holmes” what is happening if your pets urinating inappropriately by deciding if the issue is behavioural. There are many ways to do this, as described in very good detail in Dr. Pitcairn’s Complete Guide to Natural Health for Dogs & Cats.

So check for changes in your pet’s lifestyle. Is the pet more or less interactive? Is your cat drinking more water?

All of the queries listed above are questions that veterinarians and technicians regularly as of pet owners, while simultaneously testing for proper medical possibilities. Replies help veterinarians to better narrow down that medical conditions appear likely. If it turns out that the pet is having accidents exclusively for behavioural reasons, possibly drug intervention could be utilised as an adjunct to behavioural modification.

If the pet has to be professionally known for behavioural problems, the British veterinary association has a superb directory online.

The other option is to look into additional research like Dr. Pitcairn’s Complete Guide to Natural Health for Dogs & Cats (4th Edition) by Pitcairn,, H., Richard D.V.M. (Author) or Understanding Canine Urinary Incontinence by Peter Holt or Feed Your Best Friend Better: Easy, Nutritious Meals and Treats for Dogs by Rick Woodford.

Urinary Incontinence in Dogs

Signs of Urinary Incontinence

Are you beginning to find puddles of pee in the house? Or have you discovered wet spots where your dog was lying or sitting? If the answer is “yes” to any of them, your dog may be experiencing a condition known as urinary incontinence.

The fact is this condition can frequently be easily managed.

Many people assume that the “leaky dog” syndrome is due to their dogs ageing and that there are no treatment options available to them. They don’t seek help for their pet, or worse, they have it euthanised. The reality is this condition can often be easily managed.

dog incontinence

What is Urinary Incontinence?

Urinary incontinence is the loss of your dog’s ability to control urination. The most common reason for this condition in dogs is acquiring it as they mature. This condition goes by several names. Technical names are “urethral sphincter hypotenuse”, “primary sphincter mechanism incompetence (PSMI)”, “idiopathic incontinence,” and “hormone-responsive incontinence”.

The less technical name is “weak bladder”.

Regardless of what it is called, the sphincter muscle in the urethra (the tube that leads from the bladder to the outside) has become feeble and is less capable of holding the urine. This condition primarily affects middle-aged to elderly, spayed female dogs.

Roughly 1 out of 5 female dogs will be affected by this condition once they are spayed (removal of the ovaries +/- uterus¹). It may also affect younger, spayed females, intact females and intact or neutered men, but to a much lesser extent.

Does this mean you shouldn’t have your pet spayed? NO! Mainly because there are loads of health benefits associated with your dog being spayed.

How it Happens
Dogs that have a weak bladder can hold their urine while awake but often “leak” when they’re relaxed or asleep. Owners will often find puddles of urine around the home; normally in the area their dog was lying or sitting. The spots can vary in size.

Dogs often start with sometimes leaking small amounts of urine. These episodes slowly increase in frequency and amounts as time goes by. During the summertime, the irritated areas of skin may become infested. These urine strips are ideal for testing prior to things getting out of hand.

Other Reasons For Urinary Incontinence

If your pet is leaking urine, it’s extremely important to schedule a visit with your veterinarian so as to rule out other causes of incontinence. You can not just assume it’s a weak bladder.

Other conditions that can result in urinary incontinence are urinary tract infection, bladder stones, injuries or degenerative diseases of the spine, prostate problems, birth defects, diseases which cause excessive drinking like diabetes, senility, rectal bleeding as well as the lack of home training.

The majority of these conditions call for a different type of treatment compared to that for urethral sphincter hypotenuse. Your vet may also order additional tests if needed to help provide a proper diagnosis.

Treatment Choices For Urinary Incontinence

So now you have taken your dog to your vet and have received the diagnosis of urethral sphincter hypotenuse. What could be done about it? There are options for coping with or treating this issue. They include:

Of these choices, drugs would be the first selection for treatment by most dog owners, with injections and surgery reserved for those dogs who haven’t responded well to their drugs.

Just like any long-term medication, laboratory work should be carried out before starting any medication protocol. Blood pressure, blood work and urine samples must be monitored periodically to make sure that your pet can continue to take the medication. The most frequent side effects are nausea, increase in blood pressure, decrease in appetite, weight loss, protein in the urine and behavioural alterations.

You don’t need a Plumber
Urinary incontinence due to urethral sphincter hypotenuse is a frequent illness with affordable and effective options for therapy. It isn’t hopeless. Speak with your veterinarian about your dog’s condition and the best treatment option that is appropriate for your pet.